Power Steering & Parking Brakes

Final routing of the PS lines. All four curve back towards the front going under the frame and forward between the spring and the frame. I have installed a bracket to hold up the lines to the bottom of the frame (loosely to allow a bit of movement as the control valve moves back and forth.) It is the round bracket in the photo. I had to drill a hole in the bottom of the frame to mount it.

Left and right turn lines in place. If you position the lower line incorrectly on the control valve it will not line up properly. The end will face downward instead of towards the ram. Both lines should face the ram if installed correctly on the control valve. Not shown is the clip holding the lines to the frame – just the right of the photo. Studebaker still left the hole in the frame to mount this clip.

A few years ago I put PS in my Avanti, but I couldn’t remember how the PS pressure and return lines were run. After trying many routes I couldn’t seem to find one that didn’t have excess hose running underneath or that ended up with the pressure hose end facing the PS pump. Nowhere on the web could I find a photo to help. Finally I noticed an opening between the frame and the ram. That was the path to take and I recalled that was as it was in the Avanti. All the extra hose was taken up and the pressure end faced the pump. Whew!

Time to install the parking brake cable. Here is the mount I made. It is installed on the left inner frame. The original mount was on the extra cross member needed when the 283 was in the car. It held up the back of the trans as mounts were not used on the bellhousing as was usual for Studebakers. I removed the extra crossmember as it would have been in the way with the new engine/trans setup.

Moving the parking brake bracket to the frame moved the cable a little to the front. But with the engine/trans one inch back there was lots of adjustment room.

Working on 3 or more things at the same time

Trans throttle control linkage painted and installed – except for the cotter pin on the front of the TTC extender. I decided to pop rivet the TTC yoke to the extender for better clearance. I flattened the rivet on the opposite side. We’ll see just how good it works when it’s time to adjust the trans pressure and later when I test the kickdown from 3rd to 2nd.

The four PS hoses installed on the control valve. The pressure hose and the return hose have U-bends at the control valve, but the manual shows straight leads to and from the PS pump ??? Should work fine anyway as I will need to put a loop in all the pipes to allow the control valve to move back and forth freely.

The AC pump pulley arrived from Stephen Allen’s. Another problem – the PS pump belt rubs against the back of the AC fan pulley. I will need to make up a 1/8″ spacer to move the AC fan pulley forward. When done this will actually line it up better with the outer crank pulley. My crank pulley setup isn’t as it was set up from Studebaker. I just added an extra pulley for the PS and the AC. So now I need to line everything up.

I could have gone to a machine shop and had the spacer made, but this is a budget project and time is not an issue. I had a piece of 1/8″ steel that was just right. I laid the fan pulley on the steel and made center punched a spot about the center of the middle hole that slips over the water pump flange. I used my old high school dividers to make the center circle. I then used the pulley again to mark the mounting holes and center punch each one. This is what it looked like after drilling.

I only had a 1″ drill bit and the flange is 1-1/16″. So after a bit of work using a fine grinding burr it fit the water pump nicely.

I rough cut off the excess steel and then mounted it to a fan spacer. I’ll use this as a guide as I grind off the excess metal.

After grinding and fitted to the water pump. Still enough flange to hold the AC pulley and I’ve changed the water pump pulley screws to stainless and a bit longer. This spacer will allow my PS belt to clear the back of the AC fan pulley.

My stainless muffler from Silvertone has 2″ inlet and outlets. The Studebaker pipes from the engine to the muffler are also 2″, but the tail pipe is 1-3/4″. I couldn’t find a Studebaker Lark tailpipe any larger for some reason. I could have new pipes made up from 2″ stock, but I’ll use the original Stude parts for the start. So now I needed to adapt the muffler to the smaller tail pipe. I bought two adapters, but I realized that the added length would likely be a problem as the tail pipes have a welded mounting tab at the back which needs to line up with the frame. The adapter is abt 6″ long and in the end it would likely extend things by 1″-3″. So I opted to use the adapters to make a collars to fit the tailpipes into the end of the muffler output pipes. First I cut off the 2″ OD ends.

Next I expanded the tailpipe some to better fit the inside of the collar which is abt 2-13/16″ ID. The tail pipe wall thickness is 1/16″. This I was able to expand fairly easily with the pipe expander. However at one point I tried expanding the adapter pipes small end. The adapter wall thickness is 3/32″ Not much thicker than the tailpipe, but the expander wanted to strip its end nut from the pressure. Mind you this is a cheap Chinese unit from Princess Auto and not a professional quality tool.

The collar fits easily over the tailpipe and inside the muffler outlet. The muffler clamp at the back of the muffler that also clips onto the rear hanger should squeeze everything together. I will cut a narrow slot in the muffler outlet pipe and I think I will cut a slot in the full length of the collar to make sure all is tight. The slots will only be the width of a hacksaw blade.

Power Steering and other bits

I have already installed the pump and now it’s time to get the rest of the parts installed. Not shown are the 4 hoses to connect the everything up. Power steering bellcranks have an extra arm and the reach rod is different as it connects the control valve hanging from the pitman arm to the bellcrank.

I didn’t install the bellcrank earlier because I didn’t want it in the way when I installed the engine. However I did install the bellcrank bracket. This now was a problem. I couldn’t get the bellcrank to fit onto the tower – the engine pan was in the way. I didn’t want to drop the tower out of the crossmember as it would be a pain trying to hold it up and fit the bellcrank on it while I tried to get the tower mounting bolts started. So I loosened the tower bolts one at a time, removed the lock washer and then twisting the nuts back on just a couple of threads. That done I was just able to slip the bellcrank over and onto the tower pin.

I had to install the reach rod to keep the bellcrank from moving too much when I torqued the pinch bolt to 65 ft-lbs. Also it calls for a lock washer on the pinch bolt nut, but the bellcrank surface seat is not machined and there is a chance the lock washer might not get a good bite. So instead I used a serrated locking washer which would catch good on at least two points.

Then next step is to install the tie rods. I kept them at the original lenghts after I took them off for cleaning and painting. They are the same length measured between the inner and outer grease nipples. I didn’t think I would be able to torque the inner tie rod ends, but if shifted all to one side there is just enough room fit a torque wrench.

This is my handy wrench extender which if I remember correctly I got from Lee Valley Tools. I torqued each tie rod end to 50 ft-lbs and then used this set up to move the castle nut to line up with next cotter pin hole.

I used this setup to get the steering wheel and the tires in a straight ahead position so that I could set the reach rod to the correct length – it is screwed in or out of the control valve until it lines up with the hole in the bellcrank arm with the wheels in the straight ahead position.

The track of the rear wheels on this model of Lark is 56-9/16″ as opposed to the front which is 57-3/8″ – a difference of 13/16″ So I needed to block out the string abt 6.5/16″ to get a straight line from the rear sidewall to the front. Earlier Studebaker manuals used this setup to set the toe. I will do the same once the car is on the floor.

With the string just touching the sidewall of the front tire and the steering wheel in the center position I then adjusted the reach rod until it just fit in the bellcrank. I then tightened the reach rod pinch bold on the control valve.

A Stude buddy of mine installed an oil pressure gauge on the front of the engine. I thought it would be a good idea. Then I wouldn’t have to keep going back into the car to check the oil pressure when I break in the engine. I used a GT Hawk gauge with the mounting tabs cut off plus a nipple and union to get the gauge high enough to miss the head.

I’m going to install an electric fuel pump and I use an oil pressure switch to ensure the pump does not continue to work if the engine stops as a result of an accident. A good out-of-the-way spot is at the back of the engine where the oil gauge flex hose is attached to the head.

Here I used a nipple and a tee to fit everything in place. I sealed all the threads with Permatex airplane engine quality sealant.

Fitting of the R1 style air cleaner. Sadly it was taken from my wrecked Avanti 63R1630 – another one lost.

AFB Carb throttle and trans control linkages

The throttle control arm from the 283/Rochester setup works OK once I straightened it out. Under it is a preliminary setup for the trans throttle control (TTC). I’m modifing the TTC bracket from the 283. the TTC cable end will need to be extended – I have made up a extension using a narrow piece of 3/16″ mild steel which is attached to the original yoke.

I have made up an adapter plate template for the AFB using a piece of thin tin. The location of the pin that will push the TTC cable has to be a specific distance from the center of the carb throttle shaft center. I took that measurement from the old setup and then put it someplace safe – so safe that I couldn’t find it again! So I’m guessing and also leaving some adjustment in the adapter to move it if necessary. I have tried to bend the original bracket to fit, but there is no way I can get it to line up even close.

The adapter plate TTC mounting pin was a bit fiddly to get in place. It will take copper spacers to allow the inside nut to miss the adapter place mounting nut & bolt and also to miss the throttle speed adjuster screw.

This is the final setup before painting. I used a piece of 1/8″ mild steel for the carb adapter plate. I had to extend the TTC yoke even longer. I also had to make up a two piece bracket to get the TTC cable bracket lined up. It is 3/16″ mild steel and will replace the original mounting cap – like the one towards the left. The throttle control cable will fit in the carb linkage plate hole just above the front of the new TCC adapter plate.

These are the parts I had to make up – except for the TTC cable mount. The oval hole in the adapter plate will allow some adjustment to change the total movement of the TCC cable. This part of the project took me a couple of hours a day for about a week – cutting, drilling, bending, adjusting and fitting again and again to get it right. The final test will be when I set the trans pressure and passing gear downshift.

While working on the carb linkages my crank pulley spacer came in. I needed to use a combination of two spacers to get the outer pulley in position. The inner pulley drives the alternator via the fan pulley, the center pulley drives the PS and the outer pulley drives the AC via a special second fan hub pulley – that is on order from Stephen Allen’s who have many hard to find parts. They were also able to supply an original ’66 evaporator for the project.

To take a break from the carb linkage work I installed the heater connection on the water pump manifold. I blocked off the original hole on the right side and tapped the boss on the left side. Rather than use the original style 90 deg 3/4″ pipe which is quite tallI decided to use a lower brass fitting with a 3/4″ short nipple (with the threads cut off) to accept the heater hose. I will run the hose behind the AC compressor and under the alternator for a cleaner look – at least that is the plan 🙂

Intake install and other stuff

I won’t be using a heat riser and I’m blocking off the heater passages in the intake in the hopes of reducing the chance of boiling the new lighter fuel in the carb. I got the block off plates and thicker composite style intake gaskets from Dave Thibeault. I modified the plate on the right of the photo so that the choke tube will fit.

All ready, but I think this is a good time to put in the oil pressure flex pipe.

Another glitch as a result of the 283/289 engine swap. The line from the gauge is too short. I will try to find a way to extend the tiny copper line.

I’ve installed the block off plates with a bit of red high temp silicone to keep them in place.

Intake in place with a heat shield with gaskets top and bottom.

Rebuilt AFB carb in place.

Next job will be to fit the accelerator and trans control linkages to the carb.

Alternator install

What I need to install my alternator is an arm like the one in this photo. It’s a long ‘S’ shaped thing that attaches to the AC mounting bracket.

I’m using a Prestolite 38 amp alternator. The arm has to reach between the top mounting stud on the alternator and the hole in the AC bracket just above the AC belt tensioner.

Rather than wait to find the right arm – which is not available from the big Stude parts vendors – I’m going to use this generator arm. It is long enough and is made from 1/4″ steel.

It is close to being in the right place, but is stopped from getting high enough by the AC bracket.

I’ve marked the area where metal needs to be removed.’

I had to remove quite a bit of metal from the arm plus some further back where it also his the AC bracket. I also ground a bit from the AC bracket so that I didn’t have to take it from the bracket.

Sandblasted and painted up and in place. A bit unusual, but it does the job nicely until I can find the real thing. I have a backup Prestolite 34 amp alternator and it fits too. I also checked out a 60 amp Chrysler alternator and it will fit as well should I need to up the power to run the AC.

Next on to the intake and stuff.

This and that

Since the trans sits abt 1″ further back with the 289 in place of the 283 things don’t connect as they came off. The shift control adjustment is just long enough and the speedometer cable is an even closer fit. I may have to install a longer speedo cable if I start to have binding problems.

I’m using Permatex Anti-Seize on the exhaust manifold bolts. The torque range is 25-30 ft lbs. I’m considering the Permatex as a lubricant so I’ll tighten to 25 fl lbs which should equate to about 27-28 ft lbs.

It is easier to install the starter before putting the exhaust pipe on the left exhaust manifold. This a my overhauled Prestolite starter – brushes changed and bearings checked and replaced as needed. I also installed a bendix which I also, dissembled and checked beforehand. I bagged and marked the special starter bolts so I wouldn’t lose them.

When I installed the plate behind the bellhousing I fitted the starter bolts in their holes. So now they slipped into place easily.

I fitted the starter and then snugged it up with the two nuts. I then removed each nut, applied a bit of blue Lock Tight and put them back on with new lock washers.

A bit of a trick getting a torque wrench in place, but it is doable using an inch lb unit.

Next job is installing the JT pan breather tube/dipstick mount. I’ve made up a couple of 5/16″ fine mounting studs. The gasket and bolt threads have been given a coat of Permatex sealant and let stand for about a half hour to set up nicely.

All going good with two bolts in place. I’m trying to use a copper gaskets to give an extra level of seal. The breather tube on my old Avanti R1 was bad for leaking so I’m doing my best this time for a good seal to keep the hot oil in the pan and not on the garage floor!

Always hitches it seems. With the vent tube in place it is hard against the exhaust manifold. I have no idea why. I’d prefer a little gap so that the exhaust manifold doesn’t burn off the vent tube paint. So off it comes.

I have some 1/8″ thick composite gasket material for gas and oil. The original paper gasket was about 1/64″ thick. By moving the vent tube away from the pan I should get some clearance.

The copper washers went to pieces so as you can see above I’ve gone to the normal lock washers. This time I won’t be able to use gasket sealer. The thicker gasket will tend to squeeze out on the edges since the sealant doesn’t harden up. The same goes for using silicone high temp sealant.

This is me trying to use silicone. I applied a thin coat on the gasket and just snugged up the bolts. I left it overnight for the silicone to set. When I tried to torque the bolts to 17 ft lbs the gasket squeezed out and the bolts didn’t reach the proper torque. So off it came again, a new gasket cut and the whole thing put back on and torqued down dry.

The tube is away from the mainfold a matter of thousandths of an inch. It will have to do because the dipstick tube has to fit between the exhaust manifold and the block. No much wiggle room at all. Next I finished installing the trans filler tube and the exhaust pipe (loosely).

Next will be setting up the AC.

AC unit in place, etc

It would have been nice to center the AC unit under the dash, but it gets in the way of the glove box door so it has to be moved to the left. An accessory booklet for 1966 shows that they were installed this way from the factory or as a dealer option. Where it sits is very close to the gas pedal area. There is just enough room to get your leg by the unit. I sprayed the front panel with automotive silver wheel paint plus a couple of coats of clear. Hard to get a good shot on the inside of the car where the shine of the dash affects the camera.

Here is the left side. the mounting bracket is just to the right of center at the top (black). I added a brace to a point up under the dash where there was an available screw to use. The unit’s fan housing is supposed to rest on the trans hump it seems. I thought it would be good to add a bit of support to help it from working on the floor covering with normal driving vibrations. There are two drain tubes which have to exit through holes drilled in the trans hump. The pipes extend down to a point abt even with the bottom of the trans.

This is the right side showing the two connections for the AC lines. I have a kit coming which uses O rings. I will have to find two flange type fittings to connect to the older AC evaporator. The green plug is on the end of the expansion valve. The AC work will hold until I get my underhood kit.

Time to fit the trans filler tube – on the left side of the photo. I needed to install the exhaust manifold and exhaust pipe to make sure the filler pipe is kept away from the hot exhaust. I have a couple of studs in place to align the exhaust manifold. In the end the fit was so tight that I could only use a stud on the lower front mounting hole in the head.

The exhaust manifold is in place – loosely. It is very close to the upper A arm (center of the photo). I painted the exhaust parts with POR15 high heat silver epoxy paint. I was unable to put them in an oven to cure them. I did try to heat them with a heat gun, but I could only make about 180 degrees instead of the needed 350. Even so they paint was smoking at the lower temperature.

This is an electrician’s pipe bender for 1/2″ pipe. This is needed to re-bend the trans filler pipe to fit the new engine/trans setup. I was not patient enough to wait until I found a bender so the pipe has some kinks in it. The kinks later made it more difficult to use the bender when I did get it.

In the end this is what the pipe looked like with lots of kinks. I got the proper bender for the finishing bends at the top end. This was a tedious process. I must have crawled under the car at least 50 times before I got it so that it fitted without hitting the body, missed the exhaust pipe and set at the proper place in the engine compartment. The dipstick slipped in pretty well (it would slip in better without the kinks!) I will have to add the exact amount of trans fluid ( I use Ford Type F) and then check and re-mark the dipstick if needed. Sand, paint and then it will get installed.

This is its final location in the engine compartment. It is maybe 2″-3′ lower down than in the original 283 V8, adapter bellhousing, trans configuration. I have adapted a bracket to secure the pipe to one of the exhaust manifold bolts.

Driveshaft work

The driveshaft (top) is just about an 1″ too long with the new engine/trans setup. Fortunately I happened to have an old driveshaft that is about 1″ shorter (47″ vs 48″). The alternative would have been to take it to a local drive line shop to have it shortened and re-balanced. That would likely have cost $200 or so.

Here it is after cleaning and primed. It has a lot of surface rust, but no deep pits so I’m hoping it will be fine.

In the car and ready to go. I was going to use the original universal joints as they only had about 30k miles on them, but in the end I used new units. This way I won’t need to take the drive shaft out any time soon which is a messy job with automatic fluid wanting to drain out of the rear of the trans. New universals cost me about $20CDN each.

I’ll be putting AC in the ’66. I picked up a used ’65-’66 original evaporator from Stephen Allen’s. I’ve ordered a universal under-hood setup including a Sanden compressor. I already have a York mount on the engine. I have also ordered an adapter plate to mount the Sanden on the York bracket.

I have disassembled the unit, cleaned as needed and tested the motor.

The front plate is chromed cast. The directional louvers are black plastic with faded chrome. I sand blasted the front plate and then used high build primer to fill all the pits. It too quite a few coats to get smooth. Next time I’d use spot putty and high build for the final smoothing. I cleaned and sanded the louvers then gave them a coat of gloss black paint.

Next will be more work installing the evaporator and finishing the hook ups for the trans.

Torque Converter

I finally got my torque converter back from the re-builders. He took a long time, but was very reasonable on the cost considering all the problems he had getting the ring gear off so a new one could be put on. In the end he had to split the converter to get the old ring off. The plus side was that we got to see the internals and they all looked good. So he welded the new ring gear on, welded the two halves together, checked for leaks and balanced the unit.

Unfortunately I was so keen to get the torque converter installed that I forgot to get some photos. Basically I removed the bellhousing, bolted the flex plate and reinforcer ring to the crank, and then mounted the torque converter loosely to the flex plate.

I then used the above torque converter alignment plate to center the back end of the unit. I believe Myers Studebaker will rent this item out if you need it. Fortunately a Studebaker buddy had a duplicate of the rental unit made up which I was able to borrow.

I decided to fit the trans to the engine beforehand to get the gears lined up so that when I am under the car with only wiggle room, it will be easier to slip into place. My first step was to put in two guide pins in the top bolt holes.

Next I put the trans on a floor jack. Some time ago I had a flat steel plate (about 10″ X 18″) made up with a pin to fit a floor jack. With the jack handle removed it is easy to slip under the car. I can then use the speed lift handle to move the trans into place.

With the modified jack I am able to line up the input shaft with the torque converter. I rotated the torque converter so that the two tangs were horizontal and the gaps up and down. I then used a thin screwdriver to slip past the trans input shaft seal and rotate the tangs up and down so they would fall into the slots on the torque converter.

Here it is starting to go in with the top guide pins engaged. You notice the cable from the trans. This is the ’66 version of the Flight-O-Matic with the cable carb to trans control. The shift lever is the same mechanical type. This is a water cooled trans. You can see one of the brass oil line fittings on the right of the trans.

After lots of wiggling I got the trans within an 8th of an inch of the bellhousing. I then used the mounting bolts to bring things together. After this I pulled the trans back and set it aside for installation later on. In the meantime the engine needs to be installed.

A big day! The engine is finally installed. Following instructions from the manual I put on the two front engine mounts and left the rear mounts off. I then got the engine sitting on the front two mounts with the bellhousing a bit off the bat wing cross member. I then got under the car and installed the two rear mounts. The upper bolts on the mounts could be torqued to 50 ft lbs, but I had to use a long wrench and do my best to guess for the lower bolts.

Here is the look under the car. The jack has the trans in place so it can be slid in forward. It’s a process of up a bit, move ahead, up a bit…. making sure the input shaft slips into the torque converter. I did put in guide studs in the upper holes to help with the alignment as it slid forward. Some trans shaking and pushing ahead is needed.

Got it close enough to get the bolts started. I pulled the unit up to the bell housing and then removed the bolts, put on lock washer and a dab of blue lock tight and re-installed them.

There was enough room to use a torque wrench to get the required 45 ft lbs on the two uppers and one lower bolt. The bolt in the shot can only be wrenched using a stubby or a regular length socket. I tightened it up as much as I could with the 6′ wrench. It should be somewhere above 30 and maybe as good as 40. The lock washer and lock tight should hold fine. No idea how Studebaker expected the mechanics to get the correct torque on this bolt.

Next – now lets see what needs to be done to get a driveshaft in place.